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Home » Eczema

“Understanding Eczema: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options”














Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a very common skin condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is characterized by inflamed, itchy skin and can manifest in various forms and phases. Eczema can occur at any age, but it is most commonly seen in children, with many outgrowing it by adulthood. Understanding the different aspects of eczema is crucial for effective management and treatment. Eczema is primarily referred to as “atopic dermatitis” in the medical community. However, it is often simply called “eczema” by the general public. Other names for eczema may include “dermatitis” and “atopic eczema.” Eczema is a prevalent skin condition in the United States. It potentially affects people of all ages and ethnic backgrounds. Eczema is a dynamic condition that can manifest in different phases and vary in severity. These phases include:
  • Acute Phase: In the acute phase of eczema, the skin becomes red, inflamed, and intensely itchy. It may also develop small, fluid-filled blisters that can ooze and weep. Scratching can worsen the symptoms, leading to further irritation and potential infection.
  • Subacute Phase: As the acute phase subsides, the skin may appear less red and inflamed. Instead, it may become dry, scaly, and still itchy. This phase can persist for weeks or even longer.
  • Chronic Phase: If eczema is not effectively managed or treated, it can enter a chronic phase. In this phase, the skin remains dry, thickened, and prone to flaring up with intense itching. Repeated scratching can lead to skin damage and darkening.
  • Remission: Eczema can go into remission, where the symptoms largely disappear or become very mild. This can occur spontaneously or with effective treatment. However, individuals with eczema often have a lifelong predisposition to the condition and may experience intermittent flare-ups.
eczema Skin care problem


Eczema, or atopic dermatitis, is characterized by a range of symptoms that can vary in severity from every person to person. Common symptoms include:
  • Itching (Pruritus): Intense itching is the hallmark symptom of eczema.
  • Redness (Erythema): Affected areas of the skin typically become red or flushed, especially during flare-ups.
  • Inflammation: Eczema causes inflammation of the skin, leading to swelling and discomfort.
  • Dryness: The skin affected by eczema tends to be dry and may appear scaly or flaky.
  • Rash: A red or brownish-gray rash often develops, and it can take various forms, including patches, bumps, or raised areas. In severe cases, blisters may form and ooze clear fluid.
  • Cracking and Oozing: The skin may crack, and in some cases, it can ooze fluid, especially when scratched or irritated.
  • Thickened Skin (Lichenification): With chronic or severe eczema, the skin may become thickened and rough due to constant scratching and rubbing.
  • Changes in Skin Color: Prolonged eczema can lead to changes in skin pigmentation, making affected areas lighter or darker than the surrounding skin.
  • Sensitive Skin: The skin affected by eczema is often more sensitive and prone to irritation from environmental factors, such as harsh soaps or clothing materials.
  • Infection: Scratching can break the skin barrier, making it susceptible to bacterial or viral infections. Infected eczema can result in additional symptoms like pus-filled sores and increased redness and swelling.
  • Fissures: Deep cracks or fissures may develop, especially in areas with thickened skin, such as the palms of the hands or soles of the feet.
  • Prone to Recurrence: Eczema tends to be chronic and can flare up periodically. It may improve and then worsen again without proper management.
  • Localized or Widespread: Eczema can appear in localized areas, such as the hands, face, or elbows, or it can be widespread, covering larger parts of the body.


Researchers continue to study the condition to uncover more details about its origins. Here are the key factors that are thought to contribute to the development of eczema:

  • Genetics: Eczema often runs in families. Specific genes related to the skin’s barrier function and immune response are thought to play a role.
  • Abnormal Skin Barrier: Individuals with eczema tend to have a compromised skin barrier. This means their skin is less effective at retaining moisture and protecting against irritants and allergens. A weakened skin barrier allows these substances to penetrate the skin more easily, leading to inflammation and itching.
  • Immune System Dysregulation: Eczema is considered an immune-mediated condition. The immune system in people with eczema may overreact to triggers, such as allergens or irritants, causing inflammation in the skin. This immune response contributes to the characteristic symptoms of eczema.
  • Environmental Triggers: Various environmental factors can trigger or exacerbate eczema symptoms. These triggers may include exposure to allergens (e.g., pollen, dust mites, pet dander), irritants (e.g., harsh soaps, detergents, fragrances), changes in temperature and humidity, and certain foods.
  • Allergies: Allergic reactions to certain substances can contribute to eczema symptoms. Food allergies or contact allergies to substances like nickel or latex may play a role in some cases.
  • Microbial Infections: Skin infections, particularly with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, can worsen eczema symptoms.
  • Stress: Stress and emotional factors can exacerbate eczema symptoms or trigger flare-ups in some people. Stress can lead to increased inflammation and skin sensitivity.
  • Diet: While food allergies can contribute to eczema in some individuals, dietary factors can also influence symptoms. Certain foods or food additives may worsen eczema in susceptible individuals.
Causes of Eczema


Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is typically diagnosed based on a combination of clinical evaluation and a thorough medical history. There are no specific laboratory tests to definitively diagnose eczema, but healthcare providers use a set of criteria to make an accurate diagnosis. Here’s how the diagnosis process typically works:

  • Medical History: The healthcare provider will start by taking a detailed medical history. They will ask about your symptoms, their duration, when they first appeared, any known triggers or exacerbating factors, and your family history of skin conditions, allergies, and eczema.
  • Physical Examination: A visual inspection of the skin is a crucial part of the diagnosis. They may also assess the distribution of the rash, as eczema tends to appear in specific patterns on the body.
  • Exclusion of Other Conditions: Eczema is diagnosed by excluding other skin conditions that may resemble its symptoms. Conditions like psoriasis, contact dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and fungal infections can sometimes mimic eczema. Your healthcare provider will rule out these possibilities through physical examination and, if necessary, additional tests.
  • Patch Testing: In cases where contact dermatitis (a condition triggered by specific allergens or irritants) is suspected, patch testing may be recommended to identify specific allergens that may be causing the skin reaction.
  • Skin Biopsy (Rarely): In certain instances where the diagnosis remains unclear or when other skin conditions are suspected, a skin biopsy may be performed.
  • Allergy Testing: Allergy testing, such as skin prick tests or blood tests, may be considered if there is a suspicion that allergies are contributing to eczema symptoms. Identifying and managing specific allergens can be part of an effective eczema management plan.
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Eczema can be managed with a variety of treatment approaches. Here are some common treatments and strategies:

  • Emollients and Moisturizers: Applying emollients and moisturizers is a fundamental step in eczema management. These products help hydrate the skin, maintain its natural barrier, and reduce dryness and itching. Choose fragrance-free and hypoallergenic options. Apply moisturizer regularly, especially after bathing.
  • Topical Corticosteroids: Topical corticosteroid creams or ointments are often prescribed to reduce inflammation and itching during eczema flare-ups. They come in varying strengths, and your healthcare provider will recommend the appropriate one based on the severity of your symptoms. It’s essential to follow the instructions for application and not overuse them, as prolonged use of potent corticosteroids can have side effects.
  • Topical Calcineurin Inhibitors: These are non-steroidal medications available in cream or ointment form. They help control inflammation and are particularly useful in sensitive areas like the face and neck. Tacrolimus and Pimecrolimus are common examples.
  • Wet Wrap Therapy: Wet wrap therapy involves applying a layer of wet dressing over topical treatments to increase their effectiveness and soothe the skin. It can be especially helpful for severe eczema or during acute flare-ups.
  • Antihistamines: Over-the-counter or prescription antihistamines may be recommended to help relieve itching and improve sleep, especially if itching is interfering with rest.
  • Oral Corticosteroids (Short-term): In severe cases or during acute flare-ups, oral corticosteroids may be prescribed for a short period to quickly reduce inflammation. Long-term use of oral steroids is generally avoided due to potential side effects.
  • Biologic Medications: Biologic drugs, such as dupilumab, have been developed in recent years and can be effective in treating severe eczema by targeting specific immune system pathways. These are typically prescribed when other treatments have failed.
  • Identifying and Avoiding Triggers: Identifying and avoiding allergens, irritants, and triggers that worsen your eczema is essential. This may involve changes in skincare products, household items, and diet, as well as managing stress.
  • Stress Management: Stress can exacerbate eczema symptoms. Practicing stress-reduction techniques like mindfulness, relaxation exercises, or yoga can be beneficial.
  • Allergy Management: If allergies are contributing to eczema, allergy testing and allergen avoidance strategies may be recommended.
  • Prescription Medications: Depending on your specific case, your healthcare provider may prescribe additional medications or treatments tailored to your needs.

Self Care

Here are some essential self-care tips for managing eczema easily:
  • Avoid Harsh Soaps and Cleansers: Choose mild, fragrance-free, and hypoallergenic soaps and cleansers when bathing or washing your hands.
  • Short, Lukewarm Baths or Showers: Long, hot baths or showers can dry out the skin. Keep your bathing time short, and use lukewarm water to prevent further irritation.
  • Stay Cool and Hydrated: Avoid overheating, as sweating can trigger flare-ups. Dress in layers and use fans or air conditioning during hot weather. Drink plenty of water to stay hydrated.
  • Regular Follow-ups: Maintain regular follow-up appointments with your dermatologist or healthcare provider to monitor your eczema’s progress and adjust treatment as needed.
  • Educate Yourself: Learn more about eczema to better understand your condition. Being informed can empower you to make informed decisions about your treatment and self-care.
self care Eczema


There are steps you can take to reduce the risk of developing eczema in infants and minimize flare-ups in individuals who already have the condition:

Preventing Eczema in Infants:

Protective Skin Care: Practice gentle skincare for your baby:

  • Use fragrance-free and hypoallergenic baby soaps, shampoos, and lotions.
  • Avoid excessive bathing, and use lukewarm water.
  • Pat the baby’s skin dry gently after bath time.
  • Apply a moisturizer immediately after bathing to keep the skin hydrated.

Avoid Triggers: Be mindful of potential triggers:

  • If you have a family history of eczema, allergies, or asthma, discuss this with your healthcare provider.
  • Breastfeed your baby if possible, as breastfeeding may help reduce the risk of eczema in some infants.
  • Avoid exposing your baby to tobacco smoke, as it can increase the risk of eczema.
  • Dietary Factors: Introduce solid foods gradually and monitor for potential food allergies. Consult with your pediatrician before introducing common allergenic foods, such as peanuts, tree nuts, dairy, and eggs.

Pet Allergens: If you have pets, consider minimizing your baby’s exposure to pet dander, which can be an allergen. Keep pets out of the baby’s bedroom and maintain a clean living space.

Dress in Soft Fabrics: Choose soft, breathable fabrics for your baby’s clothing and bedding, and wash new items before use to remove potential irritants.

Preventing Flare-Ups in Individuals with Eczema:

  • Skin Hydration: Keep the skin well-hydrated by applying moisturizers and emollients regularly, especially after bathing or showering.
  • Avoid Irritants: Identify and avoid substances that can irritate the skin, such as harsh soaps, detergents, and fragrances.
  • Temperature and Humidity: Maintain a comfortable and consistent indoor environment. Avoid extreme temperatures and overly dry or humid conditions, which can trigger flare-ups.
  • Allergen Management: If you have identified specific allergens that trigger your eczema, take steps to minimize exposure. This may include using allergen-proof covers on bedding or identifying and avoiding food allergens.
  • Appropriate Clothing: Wear loose-fitting, breathable clothing made from natural fabrics like cotton. Avoid tight or scratchy materials.
  • Prescription Medications: Follow your healthcare provider’s treatment plan and take prescribed medications as directed.
  • Regular Follow-ups: Maintain regular follow-up appointments with your dermatologist or healthcare provider to monitor your eczema’s progress and adjust treatment as needed.

When to See a Doctor

It’s important to seek medical attention from a healthcare provider or dermatologist if you or your child experience eczema symptoms, especially if the symptoms are severe or if you notice any warning signs. Here are some warning signs that indicate it’s time to see a doctor:

  • Severe Itching and Discomfort: If itching is severe and persistent, and it’s interfering with daily activities or sleep, it’s time to consult a healthcare provider.
  • Widespread or Intense Rash: If the rash covers a large area of the body, or if it’s particularly intense, red, or swollen, medical evaluation is necessary. This could indicate a severe flare-up that requires prompt treatment.
  • Bleeding or Oozing: If the skin becomes cracked, weepy, or prone to bleeding due to scratching, it’s essential to seek medical care. Open sores can become infected, and excessive scratching can cause skin damage.
  • Difficulty Managing Symptoms: If over-the-counter creams and moisturizers are not providing relief, or if you’re unsure about the appropriate treatment, consult a dermatologist for a personalized treatment plan.
  • Symptoms in Infants: If your baby has a persistent rash, redness, or intense itching, consult a pediatrician. It’s especially important to seek medical advice for infants because their skin is delicate.
  • Development of New Symptoms: If you notice new or unusual symptoms in addition to eczema, such as respiratory issues or gastrointestinal problems, consult a healthcare provider. These symptoms may suggest other related conditions or allergies.
  • Impaired Quality of Life: If eczema significantly affects your or your child’s quality of life, including emotional well-being and daily functioning, it’s important to seek medical advice. Eczema can have a substantial impact on a person’s overall well-being, including mental health.
  • Ineffectiveness of Self-Care: If self-care measures and home remedies are not improving eczema symptoms or if they seem to be worsening, consult a healthcare provider for professional guidance.
  • Concerns About Medications: If you have concerns about the safety or side effects of eczema medications, discuss them with a healthcare provider. They can provide guidance and, if necessary, explore alternative treatment options.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is eczema?
Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a chronic skin condition which is commonly characterized by redness, itching, and also inflammation of the skin.
Can eczema be cured, or is it a lifelong condition?
Eczema is generally a lifelong condition with periods of remission and flare-ups. While there is no cure for eczema, it can be effectively managed with the right treatment and self-care strategies. Many people with eczema experience improvement in their symptoms over time, especially with proper care and avoidance of triggers.
What are common triggers for eczema flare-ups?
Eczema symptoms can be exacerbated by various factors, including:
  • Extreme temperatures and humidity levels.
  • Stress and emotional factors.
  • Certain foods or food allergies.
  • Skin infections.
  • Identifying and avoiding personal triggers is an essential part of managing eczema effectively.
What are the typical treatments for eczema?

Treatment for eczema often includes a combination of approaches:

  • Emollients and Moisturizers: These help keep the skin hydrated and maintain its natural barrier.
  • Topical Corticosteroids: These reduce inflammation and itching during flare-ups.
  • Topical Calcineurin Inhibitors: Non-steroidal medications that control inflammation.
  • Wet Wrap Therapy: Using wet dressings to soothe and hydrate the skin.
  • Antihistamines: Over-the-counter or prescription medications to relieve itching.
  • Lifestyle Modifications: Avoiding triggers, practicing stress management, and maintaining proper skincare.
  • Prescription Medications: In severe cases, oral medications or biologic drugs may be prescribed.


  • 1. Prevalence Across Ages: Eczema is often thought of as a childhood condition, but it can affect individuals of all ages. While it is common in infants and children, it can also develop or persist in adulthood. In fact, a significant portion of adults with eczema had it as children but may experience flare-ups later in life.
  • 2. Connection to Allergies and Asthma: Eczema is part of a group of conditions known as atopic diseases, which also includes allergies and asthma. Individuals with eczema are much more likely to develop allergies or asthma, and there is a strong genetic component that can predispose family members to these conditions as well.
  • 3. Leaky Skin Barrier: One of the primary factors in eczema development is a compromised skin barrier. This makes regular moisturizing and skin protection vital in eczema management.
  • 4. Psychological Impact: Eczema can have a significant psychological impact on individuals and their families. Support groups and mental health resources are often part of eczema management plans.