Understanding Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) and Its Symptoms
Overview: What is Premenstrual Syndrome?
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to a range of physical and emotional symptoms experienced by many women in the days leading up eventually to their menstrual period. PMS is a medical term used to describe these symptoms, which can vary in intensity and duration from person to person.
PMS typically affects women of reproductive age, and it is estimated that up to 90% of women experience some form of PMS at some point in their lives. However, the severity and frequency of symptoms can vary greatly between individuals, and some women may experience more severe symptoms than others.
PMS symptoms can include bloating, breast tenderness, headaches, mood swings, fatigue, and changes in appetite. These symptoms can possibly last anywhere from a few days to a couple of weeks, and they can significantly impact a woman’s quality of life.
It’s worth noting that PMS can change with age. In general, symptoms tend to be more severe in women in their late 20s and also early 30s, and they tend to improve in the years leading up to menopause. However, some women may experience worsening PMS symptoms as they approach menopause.
PMS is a common condition that can significantly impact a woman’s quality of life. If you are experiencing PMS symptoms that are affecting your daily life, it is important to talk to your healthcare provider about the proper treatment options that may be available to you.
What Are the Different Types of PMS?
- PMS-A: This type of PMS is characterized by anxiety symptoms. Women with PMS-A may experience feelings of nervousness, tension, and irritability in the days leading up to their period.
- PMS-C: PMS-C is characterized by carbohydrate cravings. Women with this type of PMS may experience intense cravings for sweets and other high-carbohydrate foods.
- PMS-D: This type of PMS is characterized by symptoms related to depression. Women with PMS-D may experience feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and low self-esteem in the days leading up to their period.
- PMS-H: PMS-H is characterized by symptoms related to fluid retention. Women with this type of PMS may experience bloating, swelling, and weight gain in the days leading up to their period.
- PMS-P: PMS-P is characterized by symptoms related to pain. Women with this type of PMS may experience headaches, joint pain, and other types of physical pain in the days leading up to their period.
What Are the Premenstrual Syndrome Causes?
- Hormonal changes: PMS is thought to be related to changes in hormone levels that occur during the menstrual cycle. Specifically, fluctuations in levels of estrogen and progesterone may be responsible for some of the physical and emotional symptoms of PMS.
- Chemical imbalances in the brain: Some researchers believe that PMS may be related to imbalances in certain chemicals in the brain. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that is involved in regulating mood, and low levels of serotonin have been associated with depression and anxiety.
- Nutritional deficiencies: Some studies have suggested that deficiencies in certain nutrients, such as calcium and magnesium, may contribute to the development of PMS symptoms.
- Genetics: There may be some genetic components to PMS, as studies have shown that women with a family history of PMS are more likely to develop the condition themselves.
- Answer: High levels of stress can contribute to the development of PMS symptoms. Stress can also make existing symptoms worse.
- Other underlying medical conditions: Some medical conditions, such as thyroid disorders, may contribute to the development of PMS symptoms.
What Are the Different Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms?
- Mood swings
- Poor concentration
- Changes in appetite or food cravings
- Insomnia or other sleep disturbances
- Breast tenderness and swelling
- Bloating and water retention
- Fatigue and lethargy
- Muscle and joint pain
- Skin problems
- Digestive issues, such as constipation or diarrhoea
What Are the Different Premenstrual Syndrome Disorder Diagnosis Options?
- Depression: Some of the emotional and behavioral symptoms of PMS, such as feelings of sadness or hopelessness, can also be symptoms of depression. It is important to distinguish between PMS-related mood changes and those associated with premenstrual anxiety and depression, as the treatment approaches for these two conditions may differ.
- Anxiety disorders: Women with PMS may experience feelings of anxiety, but these symptoms can also be part of an anxiety disorder, such as generalized anxiety disorder or panic disorder.
- Thyroid disorders: Some symptoms of PMS, such as fatigue and changes in appetite, can also be symptoms of thyroid disorders. A blood test can help rule out thyroid disorders as a cause of symptoms.
- Endometriosis: It Endometriosis is a condition in which the tissue that also lines the uterus grows outside of it, causing pain and other symptoms. Some of the various physical symptoms of PMS, such as pelvic pain, can also be symptoms of endometriosis.
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): Some women with PMS may experience digestive symptoms such as bloating, constipation, or diarrhoea, which can also be symptoms of IBS.
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What Are the Different Premenstrual Syndrome Treatment Options?There are several treatment options available for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) that can help alleviate the symptoms and improve the quality of life. The following are some of the most common treatment options for PMS:
- Lifestyle changes: Making multiple changes to your diet, exercise routine, and sleep habits can help reduce PMS symptoms. For example, eating a balanced diet that is rich in fruits, as well as vegetables, and whole grains and avoiding caffeine and alcohol can help reduce symptoms. Exercise can also help alleviate symptoms of PMS, as can getting enough sleep each night.
- Medications: There are plenty of medications that can be used to treat PMS symptoms. Over-the-counter pain relievers, which include ibuprofen or naproxen, can help alleviate cramps, headaches, and other physical symptoms. Antidepressants are also an option, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or also serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), which may also be used to treat the emotional and behavioral symptoms of PMS.
- Hormone therapy: Hormone therapy may be used to regulate hormonal fluctuations that occur during the menstrual cycle. Birth control pills or other hormonal contraceptives can help regulate hormone levels and reduce symptoms of PMS.
- Alternative therapies: Various Alternative therapies such as acupuncture, massage, or cognitive-behavioral therapy may also be helpful in reducing PMS symptoms.
How can Premenstrual Syndrome Affect Women?While premenstrual syndrome (PMS) itself is not considered a serious medical condition, it can have an impact on a woman’s living quality of life and may exacerbate other health problems. Additionally, certain lifestyle factors such as smoking, poor diet, and lack of physical activity may worsen PMS symptoms or increase the risk of complications. The following are some examples of how PMS and lifestyle factors can affect other health problems:
- Depression and anxiety: PMS can exacerbate symptoms of depression and anxiety in women who are already struggling with these conditions. Lifestyle factors such as the complete lack of physical activity, poor diet, and substance abuse can also worsen symptoms of PMS depression and anxiety.
- Migraines: Women with PMS may be more likely to experience migraines during the menstrual cycle. Certain lifestyle factors such as the act of smoking, alcohol consumption, and lack of sleep may trigger migraines in some women.
- Cardiovascular disease: Some studies have suggested that PMS may be associated with an escalated risk of cardiovascular disease.
- Insomnia: Women with PMS may experience insomnia or other sleep disturbances, which can have a negative impact on overall health and well-being. Certain lifestyle factors, such as lack of physical activity and poor sleep habits, can worsen insomnia symptoms.
What Are the Different Premenstrual Syndrome Self-Care Options?There are several self-care techniques that women can use to help relieve the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) at home. Here are some suggestions:
- Exercise: Regular exercises, such as walking, swimming, or yoga, can help relieve PMS symptoms. Exercise helps to release endorphins, which are a natural form of painkillers, and can improve mood and reduce stress.
- Diet: Eating a very healthy, balanced diet can also help alleviate PMS symptoms. Women should try to eat plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins. They should also avoid foods that are high in sugar, salt, and caffeine, as these can exacerbate symptoms.
- Relaxation techniques: Relaxation techniques, which include meditation, deep breathing, or also progressive muscle relaxation, can help reduce stress and relieve PMS symptoms.
- Heat therapy: Applying heat to the lower abdomen or back can help relieve cramps and muscle tension. Women can use a heating pad or hot water bottle or take a warm bath.
- Supplements: Certain supplements, such as magnesium, calcium, and vitamin B6, may help reduce PMS symptoms. Women should talk to their healthcare provider before starting any new supplements.
What Helps Premenstrual Syndrome?While it may not be possible to completely prevent premenstrual syndrome (PMS), there are several strategies that women can use to manage their symptoms. Here are some suggestions:
- Keep a symptom diary: Keeping track of PMS symptoms in a diary or journal can help women identify patterns in their symptoms and anticipate when they may occur. This can be helpful in planning for self-care techniques or medication use.
- Maintain a healthy lifestyle: Eating a very healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and also getting enough sleep can all help manage PMS symptoms. Women should try to avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, as these can worsen symptoms.
- Stress management: Stress can exacerbate PMS symptoms, so it’s very important for women to find ways to manage stress. Techniques such as meditation, deep breathing, or yoga can be helpful.
- Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers, which include ibuprofen or naproxen, can help relieve cramps and other physical symptoms. Women can also talk to their healthcare provider about prescription medications, such as birth control pills or antidepressants, which can help manage PMS symptoms.
- Hormone therapy: Hormone therapy, such as estrogen or progesterone therapy, may be an option for women with severe PMS symptoms. This therapy should be discussed with a healthcare provider.
- Alternative therapies: Some women may find relief from PMS symptoms through alternative therapies such as acupuncture, massage, or herbal supplements. It’s very important to talk to a healthcare provider before starting any alternative therapies.
Help at Ongo Care
Help for Premenstrual Syndrome
Ongo Care telehealth care can be a great resource for women who are seeking medical care for types of PMS symptoms. Here are some ways that Ongo Care telemedicine service may be able to help with premenstrual syndrome:
- Remote consultations: Ongo Care may offer remote consultations with healthcare providers, allowing women to discuss their symptoms and treatment options from the comfort of their own homes.
- Prescriptions: If medication is needed to manage PMS symptoms, Ongo Care may be able to provide prescriptions that can be filled at a local pharmacy.
- Education: Ongo Care may offer educational resources and information on PMS, including self-care techniques and lifestyle changes that can help manage symptoms.
- Follow-up care: Ongo Care may offer follow-up care to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and adjust the management plan as needed.
Women with severe PMS symptoms or underlying health conditions should always consult with a healthcare provider. Telemedicine can be a convenient and accessible option for women who are seeking care for mild to moderate PMS symptoms.