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Home » Premenstrual Syndrome

Understanding Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) and Its Symptoms

Overview

Overview

Symptoms

Symptoms

Causes

Causes

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Treatment

Treatment

Self-care

Self Care

Overview: What is Premenstrual Syndrome?

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to a range of physical and emotional symptoms experienced by many women in the days leading up eventually to their menstrual period. PMS is a medical term used to describe these symptoms, which can vary in intensity and duration from person to person.

PMS typically affects women of reproductive age, and it is estimated that up to 90% of women experience some form of PMS at some point in their lives. However, the severity and frequency of symptoms can vary greatly between individuals, and some women may experience more severe symptoms than others.

PMS symptoms can include bloating, breast tenderness, headaches, mood swings, fatigue, and changes in appetite. These symptoms can possibly last anywhere from a few days to a couple of weeks, and they can significantly impact a woman’s quality of life.

It’s worth noting that PMS can change with age. In general, symptoms tend to be more severe in women in their late 20s and also early 30s, and they tend to improve in the years leading up to menopause. However, some women may experience worsening PMS symptoms as they approach menopause.

PMS is a common condition that can significantly impact a woman’s quality of life. If you are experiencing PMS symptoms that are affecting your daily life, it is important to talk to your healthcare provider about the proper treatment options that may be available to you.

what is Premenstrual Syndrome

What Are the Different Types of PMS?

There are several different types of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) have been identified. These types are generally categorized based on the specific symptoms that a woman experiences. The following are some of the most common types of PMS:
  • PMS-A: This type of PMS is characterized by anxiety symptoms. Women with PMS-A may experience feelings of nervousness, tension, and irritability in the days leading up to their period.
  • PMS-C: PMS-C is characterized by carbohydrate cravings. Women with this type of PMS may experience intense cravings for sweets and other high-carbohydrate foods.
  • PMS-D: This type of PMS is characterized by symptoms related to depression. Women with PMS-D may experience feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and low self-esteem in the days leading up to their period.
  • PMS-H: PMS-H is characterized by symptoms related to fluid retention. Women with this type of PMS may experience bloating, swelling, and weight gain in the days leading up to their period.
  • PMS-P: PMS-P is characterized by symptoms related to pain. Women with this type of PMS may experience headaches, joint pain, and other types of physical pain in the days leading up to their period.
It’s worth noting that some women may experience a combination of different types of PMS, and symptoms can vary in intensity and duration from person to person. Understanding the specific type of PMS you are experiencing can help you and your healthcare provider develop a more targeted treatment plan.

What Are the Premenstrual Syndrome Causes?

The exact causes of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are not fully understood, but several factors have been identified that may contribute to the development of PMS symptoms. The following are some of the most common causes of PMS:
  • Hormonal changes: PMS is thought to be related to changes in hormone levels that occur during the menstrual cycle. Specifically, fluctuations in levels of estrogen and progesterone may be responsible for some of the physical and emotional symptoms of PMS.
  • Chemical imbalances in the brain: Some researchers believe that PMS may be related to imbalances in certain chemicals in the brain. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that is involved in regulating mood, and low levels of serotonin have been associated with depression and anxiety.
  • Nutritional deficiencies: Some studies have suggested that deficiencies in certain nutrients, such as calcium and magnesium, may contribute to the development of PMS symptoms.
  • Genetics: There may be some genetic components to PMS, as studies have shown that women with a family history of PMS are more likely to develop the condition themselves.
  • Answer: High levels of stress can contribute to the development of PMS symptoms. Stress can also make existing symptoms worse.
  • Other underlying medical conditions: Some medical conditions, such as thyroid disorders, may contribute to the development of PMS symptoms.

What Are the Different Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms?

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) can cause a wide range of symptoms that can vary in intensity and duration from person to person. These symptoms can be broadly categorized into emotional and behavioral symptoms and physical symptoms. The following are some of the most common symptoms of PMS: Emotional and Behavioral Symptoms:
  • Mood swings
  • Anxiety
  • Irritability
  • Depression
  • Poor concentration
  • Changes in appetite or food cravings
  • Insomnia or other sleep disturbances
Physical Symptoms:
  • Breast tenderness and swelling
  • Bloating and water retention
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue and lethargy
  • Muscle and joint pain
  • Skin problems
  • Digestive issues, such as constipation or diarrhoea
It’s worth noting that not all women will experience every symptom of PMS, and some women may experience only a few of these symptoms while others may experience many. Additionally, the severity and duration of symptoms can vary from person to person. If you are experiencing PMS symptoms that are affecting your daily life, it’s important to talk to your healthcare provider about treatment options that may be available to you. There are various treatments available that can help alleviate the symptoms of PMS, including lifestyle changes, medications, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage.
What Are the Different Premenstrual Syndrome Disorder Diagnosis Options

What Are the Different Premenstrual Syndrome Disorder Diagnosis Options?

Diagnosing premenstrual syndrome (PMS) can be challenging because the symptoms can be very similar to those of other medical conditions. Therefore, it is important to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms before making a diagnosis of PMS. The following are some of the conditions that may be considered as part of the differential diagnosis for PMS:
  • Depression: Some of the emotional and behavioral symptoms of PMS, such as feelings of sadness or hopelessness, can also be symptoms of depression. It is important to distinguish between PMS-related mood changes and those associated with premenstrual anxiety and depression, as the treatment approaches for these two conditions may differ.
  • Anxiety disorders: Women with PMS may experience feelings of anxiety, but these symptoms can also be part of an anxiety disorder, such as generalized anxiety disorder or panic disorder.
  • Thyroid disorders: Some symptoms of PMS, such as fatigue and changes in appetite, can also be symptoms of thyroid disorders. A blood test can help rule out thyroid disorders as a cause of symptoms.
  • Endometriosis: It Endometriosis is a condition in which the tissue that also lines the uterus grows outside of it, causing pain and other symptoms. Some of the various physical symptoms of PMS, such as pelvic pain, can also be symptoms of endometriosis.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): Some women with PMS may experience digestive symptoms such as bloating, constipation, or diarrhoea, which can also be symptoms of IBS.
To diagnose PMS, a healthcare provider will typically ask about a woman’s symptoms and medical history, as well as perform a physical exam to rule out other potential causes of symptoms. Keeping a symptom diary can also be helpful in tracking symptoms and identifying patterns that may be related to the menstrual cycle. In some cases, laboratory tests may be ordered to rule out other medical conditions.
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Treatment

What Are the Different Premenstrual Syndrome Treatment Options?

There are several treatment options available for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) that can help alleviate the symptoms and improve the quality of life. The following are some of the most common treatment options for PMS:
  • Lifestyle changes: Making multiple changes to your diet, exercise routine, and sleep habits can help reduce PMS symptoms. For example, eating a balanced diet that is rich in fruits, as well as vegetables, and whole grains and avoiding caffeine and alcohol can help reduce symptoms. Exercise can also help alleviate symptoms of PMS, as can getting enough sleep each night.
  • Medications: There are plenty of medications that can be used to treat PMS symptoms. Over-the-counter pain relievers, which include ibuprofen or naproxen, can help alleviate cramps, headaches, and other physical symptoms. Antidepressants are also an option, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or also serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), which may also be used to treat the emotional and behavioral symptoms of PMS.
  • Hormone therapy: Hormone therapy may be used to regulate hormonal fluctuations that occur during the menstrual cycle. Birth control pills or other hormonal contraceptives can help regulate hormone levels and reduce symptoms of PMS.
  • Alternative therapies: Various Alternative therapies such as acupuncture, massage, or cognitive-behavioral therapy may also be helpful in reducing PMS symptoms.

Complications

How can Premenstrual Syndrome Affect Women?

While premenstrual syndrome (PMS) itself is not considered a serious medical condition, it can have an impact on a woman’s living quality of life and may exacerbate other health problems. Additionally, certain lifestyle factors such as smoking, poor diet, and lack of physical activity may worsen PMS symptoms or increase the risk of complications. The following are some examples of how PMS and lifestyle factors can affect other health problems:
  • Depression and anxiety: PMS can exacerbate symptoms of depression and anxiety in women who are already struggling with these conditions. Lifestyle factors such as the complete lack of physical activity, poor diet, and substance abuse can also worsen symptoms of PMS depression and anxiety.
  • Migraines: Women with PMS may be more likely to experience migraines during the menstrual cycle. Certain lifestyle factors such as the act of smoking, alcohol consumption, and lack of sleep may trigger migraines in some women.
  • Cardiovascular disease: Some studies have suggested that PMS may be associated with an escalated risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Insomnia: Women with PMS may experience insomnia or other sleep disturbances, which can have a negative impact on overall health and well-being. Certain lifestyle factors, such as lack of physical activity and poor sleep habits, can worsen insomnia symptoms.
It’s important for women with PMS to practice healthy lifestyle habits such as eating a very balanced diet, getting regular exercise, avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and getting enough sleep each night.
How can Premenstrual Syndrome Affect Women

Self-Treatment

What Are the Different Premenstrual Syndrome Self-Care Options?

There are several self-care techniques that women can use to help relieve the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) at home. Here are some suggestions:
  • Exercise: Regular exercises, such as walking, swimming, or yoga, can help relieve PMS symptoms. Exercise helps to release endorphins, which are a natural form of painkillers, and can improve mood and reduce stress.
  • Diet: Eating a very healthy, balanced diet can also help alleviate PMS symptoms. Women should try to eat plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins. They should also avoid foods that are high in sugar, salt, and caffeine, as these can exacerbate symptoms.
  • Relaxation techniques: Relaxation techniques, which include meditation, deep breathing, or also progressive muscle relaxation, can help reduce stress and relieve PMS symptoms.
  • Heat therapy: Applying heat to the lower abdomen or back can help relieve cramps and muscle tension. Women can use a heating pad or hot water bottle or take a warm bath.
  • Supplements: Certain supplements, such as magnesium, calcium, and vitamin B6, may help reduce PMS symptoms. Women should talk to their healthcare provider before starting any new supplements.
It’s important to note that while these self-care techniques can be helpful in reducing PMS symptoms, they may not work for everyone. Women who are experiencing severe PMS symptoms that are affecting their daily life should talk to their healthcare provider about additional treatment options that may be available to them.

Prevention

What Helps Premenstrual Syndrome?

While it may not be possible to completely prevent premenstrual syndrome (PMS), there are several strategies that women can use to manage their symptoms. Here are some suggestions:
  • Keep a symptom diary: Keeping track of PMS symptoms in a diary or journal can help women identify patterns in their symptoms and anticipate when they may occur. This can be helpful in planning for self-care techniques or medication use.
  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle: Eating a very healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and also getting enough sleep can all help manage PMS symptoms. Women should try to avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, as these can worsen symptoms.
  • Stress management: Stress can exacerbate PMS symptoms, so it’s very important for women to find ways to manage stress. Techniques such as meditation, deep breathing, or yoga can be helpful.
  • Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers, which include ibuprofen or naproxen, can help relieve cramps and other physical symptoms. Women can also talk to their healthcare provider about prescription medications, such as birth control pills or antidepressants, which can help manage PMS symptoms.
  • Hormone therapy: Hormone therapy, such as estrogen or progesterone therapy, may be an option for women with severe PMS symptoms. This therapy should be discussed with a healthcare provider.
  • Alternative therapies: Some women may find relief from PMS symptoms through alternative therapies such as acupuncture, massage, or herbal supplements. It’s very important to talk to a healthcare provider before starting any alternative therapies.
By implementing these strategies, women can help manage their PMS symptoms and improve their overall quality of life.

Help at Ongo Care

Help for Premenstrual Syndrome

Ongo Care telehealth care can be a great resource for women who are seeking medical care for types of PMS symptoms. Here are some ways that Ongo Care telemedicine service may be able to help with premenstrual syndrome:

  • Remote consultations: Ongo Care may offer remote consultations with healthcare providers, allowing women to discuss their symptoms and treatment options from the comfort of their own homes.
  • Prescriptions: If medication is needed to manage PMS symptoms, Ongo Care may be able to provide prescriptions that can be filled at a local pharmacy.
  • Education: Ongo Care may offer educational resources and information on PMS, including self-care techniques and lifestyle changes that can help manage symptoms.
  • Follow-up care: Ongo Care may offer follow-up care to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and adjust the management plan as needed.

Women with severe PMS symptoms or underlying health conditions should always consult with a healthcare provider. Telemedicine can be a convenient and accessible option for women who are seeking care for mild to moderate PMS symptoms.

Frequently Asked Questions

Should vitamins help in treating premenstrual syndrome symptoms?
Some studies suggest that certain vitamins and supplements, such as vitamin B6 and magnesium, may help alleviate PMS symptoms. However, it’s important to talk to a healthcare provider before taking any supplements to ensure their safety and effectiveness.
How can I get support from Ongo Care for my premenstrual syndrome?
You can access support from Ongo Care for PMS symptoms by scheduling a remote consultation with a healthcare provider through their telemedicine platform. They may also provide educational resources and referrals to specialists if needed.
Does PMS share its symptoms with other diseases?
Some symptoms of PMS, such as mood changes, fatigue, and breast tenderness, can also be seen in other medical conditions. This is why it’s important to consult with a healthcare provider to rule out other potential causes.
Which doctor should I see if I suffer from premenstrual syndrome symptoms?
Women can see their primary care physician or gynaecologist for PMS symptoms. In some cases, a mental health professional may also be involved in treatment if mood changes and emotional symptoms are significant.